A UX research method to understand and describe human behavior by observing people in natural environments or prepared situations, noting actions, interactions, and context.


Observations involve watching and documenting users' interactions with a product, service, or environment. Whether conducted openly or covertly, Observations provide insights into natural behavior, preferences, usability, and real-world contexts. Observations are foundational in user research, anthropology, and human-centered design, where understanding how people actually interact, rather than how they say they do, uncovers authentic insights and guides empathetic solutions.

Suitable for

  • Understanding and describing human behavior
  • Collecting data for creating user scenarios
  • Supplementing data from interviews


Observation Protocol

A structured guideline for the researcher to follow during the observation session, detailing the aim, location, context, time, and any other relevant factors.

Observation Checklist

A list of specific behaviors, activities, interactions, or elements to be observed and recorded during the observation session.

Observation Notes

Detailed, timestamped notes taken by the researcher during the observation, capturing participants' behavior, their environment, and other significant factors.

Audio Recordings

Recordings of the observation session, capturing sound to provide additional context and support the analysis of interactions.

Video Recordings

Recordings of the observation session, capturing visual data to support the analysis of users' behavior, interactions, and environment.


Photos taken during the observation session, capturing relevant visual information about the environment, artifacts, or user behaviors.

Contextual Inquiry

A process of observing and interviewing users in their actual working or living environment, providing rich contextual information to inform design decisions.

Observation Data Analysis

A compilation and analysis of the data gathered during the observation, identifying patterns, trends, and insights to inform design decisions.

Observation Report

A comprehensive document presenting the findings from the observation session, including analysis, insights, implications, and recommendations for design improvements.



Define the research objectives

Start by outlining the specific goals and objectives of your observation research. Clearly state what user behavior or interaction you want to investigate and how it will benefit your UX design process.


Choose the observation method and setting

Select the type of observation method to be used, such as naturalistic or controlled, participant or non-participant. Make a decision whether you will conduct observations in the users' natural environment, like their homes or workplaces, or in a controlled lab setting.


Recruit participants and obtain consent

Recruit a representative sample of participants that closely matches your target user demographic. Ensure they comprehend the purpose of the study and obtain informed consent from them before starting the observation process.


Prepare the observation protocol

Create a structured observation protocol that includes specific tasks, scenarios or triggers that you want to observe. This will provide a consistent guide for observers and help maintain focus during the study.


Brief observers and pilot test

If working with multiple observers or researchers, brief them on the study objectives, methods, and the observation protocol. Conduct a pilot test on a small number of participants to identify any inconsistencies, problems, or improvements needed in the protocol.


Conduct the observations

Carry out the observation sessions with your participants. Ensure that observers maintain a low profile if using a non-participant method, while staying focused on the user behavior and interactions. Record all relevant data, such as frequency of actions, emotions or gestures, and user feedback during the session.


Document detailed field notes

Observers should take detailed field notes describing what they saw and experienced during each observation session. These notes will be invaluable later in the analysis stage, so be sure to document all relevant impressions, behaviors, comments, patterns, and concerns.


Analyze the data

Carefully review the collected data, identify patterns and trends, and compare findings against the original research objectives. If working with a team, conduct a debrief session to discuss overall insights and impressions. Then, categorize and synthesize data in a meaningful way to create actionable insights.


Create a report

Summarize the key findings, insights and recommendations in a comprehensive report. The report should touch on sample characteristics, the settings, methods used, and any limitations of the study. Be sure to include clear action plans based on your insights to improve the overall UX design.

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